Kilowatt Hour Notes and Other Mediums of Exchange

Active Local Currencies Around the Globe
TOP (L to R): ECOs (Catalonia, Spain), Calgary Dollars (Canada), BerkShares (United States)
CENTER: Bangla-Pesa (Kenya)
BOTTOM (L to R): Baltimore BNotes (Baltimore, MD), Sarafu-Credits (Kenya), K’Mali (South Africa)

In April of 1981 the Schumacher Center convened a conference called “Community Survival in the Age of Inflation.” Schumacher Center President Robert Swann addressed the conference on the theme “The Place of a Local Currency in a World Economy: Towards an Economy of Permanence.” In his talk he laid out the steps for implementing a local currency denominated in kilowatt-hours of electricity produced regionally using small-scale technologies and renewable resources.

In June of 2004, Schumacher Center staff member Chris Lindstrom led the convening of a new conference: “Local Currencies in the 21st Century.” It proved a historic gathering. Representatives from 17 countries shared experiences and built relationships that have led to new productive collaborations.

Much has happened in the development of new community-based systems of exchange. Advances in technology have suggested possibilities for the design of currency systems that Bob Swann could not have anticipated. And Bob would have been proud that in his own region of the Berkshires, over 1.5 million BerkShares have been issued from eleven participating banks since launch of the program in September of 2006.

A coalition of groups is convening a conference April 14th-16th in Seattle, Washington to explore monetary systems, how these systems impact both the individual and communities, and how this impact might be transformed through personal and community action.

Keynote speakers include:

Hazel Henderson, producer of the TV series “Ethical Markets,” author of Creating Alternative Futures and other books, and Schumacher Center Advisory Board member; and Nipun Mehta, an inspirational speaker and founder of CharityFocus, a fully volunteer-run organization that has delivered millions of dollars of web-related services to the nonprofit world for free.

Everyone who attends is welcome to present (the format will be 80% open space technology). Topics will include micro-credit, slow money, local currencies, complementary currencies, time dollars, retail trade exchanges, LETS, state of the art transaction software and hardware technologies, money and spirituality, ecological accounting, social venture and entrepreneurship, monetary theory, value network mapping, equity sharing, energy backed currency, organizational structures, gift economies, and barter.

The Schumacher Center is pleased to be a co-sponsor of the event in partnership with PlaNetwork, RSF Social Finance, Current Innovations and Tools for Change.

Following are excerpts from Bob Swann’s original 1981 talk.


Excerpts from “The Place of a Local Currency in a World Economy” by Robert Swann, 1981

1. I want to focus on the institution of money and the opportunity that now presents itself to develop a better system than our present system. We need a monetary system which will by its nature promote and enhance the small scale institutions, small businesses, cooperatives, small communities, and local towns, while at the same time being sensitive to the unique ecologies of regions. Obviously, the system we have now, and which is failing, does not do so.

2. From a legal viewpoint, money is nothing more (or less) than a claim. But from a technological viewpoint, money is a tool. Like any other tool it can be shaped to perform in different ways. Just as both a scythe and a combine are tools for cutting wheat, so money may be designed to perform in different ways with different objectives. In the same way that we are presently designing and creating more appropriate hardware for small scale needs, so we must create an appropriate tool for exchange.

I do not mean to suggest that creating a better money or exchange mechanism will solve all the problems that confront our society. Not by a long shot. However, just as E. F. Schumacher pointed out, if we create inappropriately scaled tools we end up with many social problems (unemployment, dissatisfaction with work, alienation, etc.) so also the tool which we presently use for exchange, is inappropriately designed for the various functions for which it is intended and as a result has led to serious economic and social problems.

Economists are presently arguing about the possible “solutions” to these problems but since economists, like most modern technologists are looking for “macro” solutions, they have virtually overlooked the possibility of micro solutions. . . . . It is, therefore, I think up to those of us who are the advocates of appropriate technology and small scale to become the inventors, creators, and producers of an appropriate technology for money and banking. We cannot expect the answer to come from outside of our own ranks. Moreover, it is vital to us, because all of the other appropriate technologies with which we are involved depend eventually upon a proper and decent exchange system.

A new money system should have all of the attributes that we value (cooperation, self-reliance, community, etc.). Such would be the direction of the work on which we must concentrate in order to develop an “economy of permanence” in Schumacher’s words.

3. If we are to begin to design a local money system that would work for development of a local economy, what are the elements or characteristics for such a system?

It would have to be simple to understand, but consistent with our experience of the present money system. That is: it would have to consist of both cash (or paper currency) as well as a checking system—or some other form of bookkeeping which utilizes the computer to simplify accounting. Unlike our present money system, it would have to be redeemable (i.e. exchangeable) in some real value—not necessarily gold or silver, but real needs of everyday use such as energy. Without redemption system it will be difficult to convince people of its value—after all isn’t that exactly why the dollar so devalued—because it is not redeemable for real value from the primary issuer, the Federal Reserve.

Most importantly, we would need to establish a measurement of value which would be as universal as possible and not subject to swings in value up or down as our present money system is. In other words, it would have to remain as constant in value as possible in order to establish a sense of permanency and security as well as make it more practical for exchange to take place.

Such a method of measurement would be the most revolutionary element in the design and would be the key factor in making it possible for a universal system of money and banking—without the need of central banks or central governments becoming involved in money issue. Once this standard of value had been arrived at, it could be monitored by the state or federal government just as the Bureau of Standards maintains and monitors other standards of measurement such as weights and units of space. But it would not require state intervention into the economic sphere, as is now the case.

And finally, it would have to be organized at the local level and controlled by the community as a whole (i.e. each community would elect members of the board of the issuing bank which would preferable be a non-profit institution). Under such a structure as I am suggesting, banking would become more truly a profession, and bankers would be paid for their services, but the community would decide how and where its currency would be invested.

Let me reiterate briefly these specifications: a local currency (appropriate scaled currency) should: be consistent with customary practices (cash, checking, and accounting systems); be redeemable in some form of real need of every day value; and although based on local production, be a universal measure of value.

4. To restate the major point of this talk: the most pressing need I can imagine for a local and regional self-reliant economy is the invention and establishment of an appropriate exchange system such as I have described. Yet such a system, because it is based on a universal measure of value like a kilowatt-hour of energy, could, at the same time, become the key to eventually establishing a worldwide system. For it is obvious that while on the one hand we are at an historical point where local and democratic participation in the economy is essential to our economic survival and to our humanity, it is also clear that we live in a world which is rapidly moving towards a one world economy.

This new, appropriately scaled monetary system would consist of thousands of small, primarily self-reliant regions exchanging or trading directly with each other using a common unit of exchange. Thus the foundation for a cooperative world economy would emerge.

I would therefore call for a task force of volunteers to come forth from this conference determined to study and then implement the first stages of such an appropriate money and banking system.